Do you like Strawberry Jam?

A brilliant post by my old head of music, George Bevan, on why it isn’t enough as a music teacher to praise your students for good performances: in order to teach real musicianship, we as teachers have to understand what makes up a good performance and break that down for our pupils, so that they can learn *why* they are doing what they do when they play their instruments.
I really recommend George’s blog, music@monkton, and also Paul Harris’s books on teaching (I need to get hold of the newest one, Simultaneous Learning, which George actually wrote the foreword for!)


Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink is “all about those moments when we ‘know’ something without knowing quite why we know it,” when we rely on instinct rather than our ability to reason. Gladwell is a persuasive writer and I find him compelling. He draws on a huge variety of examples in this book, but nevertheless I was quite surprised when I suddenly found the topic turning to strawberry jam!

In short, jam experts were asked to rank forty-four different jams, and then a group of college students were asked to do the same. How close would their results be? To cut a short story even shorter, quite close it seems: “Even those of us who aren’t jam experts know good jam when we taste it.” But then they asked the students to give reasons for prefering one jam to another. Disaster. “It’s simply that we don’t have any way of explaining our feelings about…

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Recent interview for Fugue for Thought – questions about the viola

A little while ago I was contacted by the writer of a blog called ‘Fugue for Thought’, Alan Missroon, who wanted to know whether I’d be happy to be interviewed for the blog about the viola and my experiences of playing it. Of course, I said yes, so here’s the resulting interview – there were lots of very in depth questions, so if you don’t get through it all, don’t worry! It covers subjects such as: why I started playing the viola, my favourite pieces for viola, the viola’s role in chamber and orchestral music, differences between the violin and viola and in techniques of playing them, life as a musician and a lot more!

Fugue for thought interview

The blog is also fascinating, if you get a chance to have a look around – for example, I learnt that July 28th (my birthday) is the day that both Vivaldi and Bach died.

Full text of the interview:

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

The Ensemble: the viola

An interview with Jessica Wyatt
Photo courtesy Gillian Gamble
I’m so glad to have our second interview for our (roughly) monthly series on the members and sections of the orchestra.
Part of the reason I am always beyond thrilled and giddy to prepare and read these is that I just love people who know what they’re talking about. It is so exciting to me to hear people speak on what they are passionate about and know intimately, and our guest today, Ms. Wyatt, has wonderfully insightful answers to my questions about the viola.  You can have a look at her website here.
While the viola has been described as “the Cinderella of the strings,” Ms. Wyatt assures us that it is an exciting, challenging and beautiful part of the orchestra, and I was thrilled to have a chance to hear her insight on her instrument of choice.
I’m so glad to have you with us here today, Jess. Let’s get started!
1.  What is your first memory of the viola? Is it what you started on? Tell us about that decision.
My first memory of the viola is when my violin teacher asked me, aged 10, whether I would like to play the viola and explained to me what it was – that it was like a bigger and deeper version of a violin. She must have played something to me on her viola, but oddly I don’t remember that very clearly… I remember asking my parents, and them agreeing
to buy me a small viola (the same size as a full size violin but definitely viola, not a violin strung as a viola – we’ll talk about the differences later!) if I passed my Grade 5 violin exam. I had started violin aged 8, and remember pestering my mother for a good while before she would let me start lessons – she used to sing in a local choral society, and as a child I would go along to concerts and would sit fascinated, watching the players in the orchestra. When I got it, I was so proud of my new viola – I had passed the exam with flying colours, and my dad had to go to London to a special shop to get the viola, and I was very excited to try this new instrument. Of course, I had to learn to read the alto clef, but that didn’t prove too much of a problem and I think from my first days of playing the instrument, I was hooked on its sound – mellower and rounder compared with the violin.
2.  Does a violist use the same etudes and practice material that a violinist would use? We will talk about some of the differences between the two instruments in a bit, but it seems the viola has a limited enough repertoire. Do you resort to using exercises written for violin? I would also think differences in technique may require more specific exercises. 
Violists, as you say, have a much smaller repertoire than violinists, so yes, we do tend to borrow from the violin repertoire! Studies and technical material, for example the famous violin studies like Kreutzer, Paganini, Sevcik, Wohlfahrt and the Flesch Scale system have all been transcribed for the viola and are considered core material for the development of basic technique. But there are some viola specific etudes too – Campagnoli’s 41 Caprices,  Watson Forbes ‘Daily Exercises’ and Palaschko, as well as an increasing amount of material being written for viola by both violists and composers – for example, Garth Knox’s Viola Spaces which focus on extended techniques. But it is important to bear in mind that many violists learn to play the violin before transferring to the viola, or indeed play both instruments, so the overlap of knowledge, techniques and abilities between the instruments is substantial. Having said that, there are aspects of playing the viola that are technically more challenging than the violin and thus require more attention and work – using studies, scales and whatever else comes to hand!
3. Tell me a bit about the differences between the viola and the violin, aside from ‘bigger’ and ‘lower’. I know that being slightly larger brings with it some unique differences. Also, how is it that many people find the tone of the viola to be ‘nasally’ or ‘whiny’ when the violin sings sweetly and the cello is deep and rich? Is it just because of its register right between the two?
The viola is the instrument that sits in between the violin’s range (the treble register) and the cello’s (the bass register). It can therefore be considered the alto voice of the string section and often takes on a more harmonising role, sitting in the middle of the texture. Structurally, the viola has a larger body than the violin, allowing more air to resonate inside it, and lower pitched strings – a fifth lower than the violin, meaning that it shares 3 strings with the violin (a violin’s strings from the top are E A D G, and a viola’s are A D G C). The viola’s strings, however, are thicker than the violin’s and harder to make resonate – so the viola player must work harder with the bow and use more weight to make the strings sound and produce a good tone. Because of its larger size, the viola is also heavier than the violin, and the bow is also heavier, with a more robust stick and more hair than the violin bow – all of these things make the viola a physically more demanding instrument than the violin to play, and is the reason viola players have to be very careful with their set-ups to avoid injury due to playing. The viola is a challenging instrument to play – but well worth it, I believe! – as the quality of sound is so beautiful and unique – somewhere between the richness and pathos of a cello, the purity of the human voice, and the sweetness of the violin. I personally haven’t ever heard people comment that the viola’s tone is ‘nasal’ or ‘whiny’ – I can only assume that the viola playing that they have heard hasn’t been of the best quality! The instrument itself has an innate resonance which lends it a greater depth of sound than the smaller violin.
4. I read in one of your articles about there not really being a standard size for violas, and that there is a range of a few inches’ worth of difference in length. Does this not affect the tone quality and/or pitch? That was something I didn’t know, and it seemed odd. What does one consider when looking for the right size?
Yes, it is correct that there is no ‘standard’ full size for violas, as there is for most other instruments – for example, a full size violin always has a back length of 14 inches (give or take a few millimetres). With violas, the back length (basically the length of the body of the instrument, excluding the neck) can vary from anything as small as 15 inches to as large as 18 inches, although these are rare and tend to be older instruments (such as Amati and Gasparo da Salo). The pitch of the instrument is not affected by the variation in size, as all viola strings are tuned to the same pitches (even if the string length varies), but the depth and resonance of the sound are affected – the larger the viola, the deeper the sound.
I’d say the most popular sizes of viola are between about 15 ½ inches and 17 inches, with most professionals choosing ones of about 16-16.5 inches, depending on the size of the player and the tone qualities they want from their instrument. There is always a compromise when choosing the size of a viola – a larger one will produce a deeper and richer sound, but comes at the price of being harder to manage, so most violists try to find the largest instrument they can comfortably play without over-stretching themselves and causing injury. My viola is 15 3/8 inches (yes, they can be rather over precise sometimes!) but its ribs (the pieces of wood making up the sides of the instrument) are quite deep and so it produces a bigger and richer sound than one of the same size but thinner ribs. In order to overcome the problem of the larger size violas being unplayable, some violists and violin makers have even invented their own patterns of viola which combine the richness of a large viola with a smaller body. Lionel Tertis, the famous English viola virtuoso, invented the ‘Tertis’ pattern of viola, which combines the sound of a larger viola in a more manageable 16 ¾ body length (but that is still quite a large viola for most people!) More recently, makers have tried redesigning the viola, sometimes with bizarre results (David Rivinus’ Pellegrina viola looks like something out of Salvador Dali), but all with the aim of making the viola more ergonomic to play whilst keeping its rich sound.
(See this article for an in depth consideration of viola size – technical though!)
(Info on Ergonomic violas can be found at this website)
5. Aside from the specific challenges mentioned above regarding size and larger, thicker strings, etc. are there any other challenges that the instrument presents, either individually or in orchestration, etc.?
As an instrument that sits in the middle register, the viola as a solo instrument has to work harder to project itself above an orchestra than either the cello, which has power on its side, or the violin, which has the advantage of a stratospheric range. This means that when violists play concertos with orchestra, the conductor has to make allowances for the difficulties with projection and make sure the orchestra doesn’t overpower the soloist in loud passages. In orchestral works, usually there is less of a problem with projection as if composers want to make the viola come out of the texture, they usually compensate for its middle register by reducing other orchestration at that point, but also in orchestras there are usually enough violas in the section to make themselves heard!
6. Is it ‘easier’ to find openings or auditions for viola parts? I’ve heard it said before that competition is far less fierce for viola chairs than for violin or cello, since there are far fewer violists. Has this been the case in your experience?
I would say that in my experience in the UK, due to the fact that there are always fewer chairs for viola than violin in an orchestra, it is almost harder to get a permanent job in an orchestra! There are always more violists around than jobs available, so competition is pretty intense for any job that comes up as they are so scarce. I’ve been at auditions in Scotland where players have come from Europe and even further afield to try and get the job! That said, if you are freelancing, gigs sometimes are easier to come by if you are a viola player – it just depends on the gig, the area you’re in and whether there are lots of players nearby.
7. Tell me about your favorite pieces in the viola repertoire, and why you love them. Did the viola have or does it have a heyday? I can’t think of many famous violist-composers or even pieces. Hindemith and Walton come to mind, and that’s about it. Do you particularly enjoy the viola writing (in the orchestra, not solo) from any specific composer(s)?
There are many wonderful pieces written for the viola, but some of my particular favourites are: the two Brahms sonatas Op 120, one in E flat and one in F minor, the Walton Viola Concerto, Berlioz’s Harold in Italy and Schumann’s Marchenbilder (Fairy-Tale Pictures) for viola and Piano. Starting with the Brahms, some might say that these don’t count, as they were originally written for clarinet, but Brahms himself transcribed them for viola and they work wonderfully well with the instrument’s darker tone – especially the F minor sonata’s foreboding first movement. The sweetness of the viola’s A string help to bring out the wonderful lyrical melodies and the long lines in both sonatas, and one of my favourite moments is the grandioso feel of the second movement in the Eb sonata – you can really put so much into it!
The Walton concerto is a masterpiece – the ethereal opening with the viola soaring above the orchestra is spine-tingling, followed by more chromatic sections and a dramatic cadenza-like passage of parallel double stopped sixths which you can really pull around to maximise the tension! It is virtuosic yet (mostly) manageable, and is a rite of passage for young viola players, but the work’s poetic, melancholy feel matches the tonal colours of the viola perfectly. The concerto was originally written for Lionel Tertis, the first great virtuoso exponent of the viola and the man who brought the viola to prominence as a solo instrument; ironically, Tertis pronounced the concerto ‘too modern’ and so Hindemith gave the first performance of the concerto instead! I suppose this period from the 1920s until the 1980s, during the lives of Tertis, Hindemith and the other great exponent of the viola, William Primrose, could be described as the ‘heyday’ of the viola – it was finally leaving its role as the ‘Cinderella’ of the orchestra behind and being heard as a solo instrument in its own right. During this period, much viola music was composed – Bax, Bridge, York Bowen, Benjamin Dale and Holst all wrote pieces for Tertis, and Britten and Bartok wrote now the famous Lachrymae and the viola concerto for Primrose.
Going back to my favourite pieces, the Berlioz and Schumann are both wonderful character pieces – the first is a programmatic symphony ‘with viola obbligato’, where the viola plays the role of the Byron’s Childe Harolde from his poem of the same name and explores the various scenes in the countryside of the Abruzzi mountains.  The Schumann Fairy-Tales are just that – scenes from fairy tales such as Rapunzel and Rumpelstiltskin, cleverly depicted using the full palette of the viola’s colours from melancholy to exuberant.
As for composers whose orchestral viola writing I particularly enjoy, I always love romantic works as they often exploit the viola’s qualities well – symphonies by Brahms, Sibelius, Tchaikovsky and Elgar all have great passages written for viola (or ‘viola moments’ as we like to call them!) But unfortunately, these composers also write music that is quite challenging technically (see the answer to question 14 below!) – so in the same piece, you might get a wonderful tune to play followed by a very difficult piece of passagework… Sometimes one cancels the other out!
(For some detailed programme notes on the Brahms E flat sonata and Walton concerto that I wrote for a recital, check out this page)
8. Along with that, what are the typical go-to pieces in the viola repertoire that show up on auditions? It seems Strauss’s Don Juan gets a mention for almost every part. What can a violist expect to see in an audition?
Almost all viola auditions will ask for the following (which is similar to what is asked in violin and cello auditions, only our range of pieces is smaller). Depending on whether the audition is for a tutti or principal viola, there may be more or different requirements.
  • The first movement of a classical concerto, which for viola players is either the Hoffmeister Concerto in D or the Stamitz Concerto in D (neither is a particularly exciting concerto and in fact they are pretty similar in style and execution!)
  • The first movement of a twentieth century concerto – either the Walton, Bartok or Hindemith’s Der Schwanendreher
  • One movement from a Bach Cello Suite or Violin Sonata or Partita
Orchestral Excerpts
Occasionally a piece of your own choice is substituted for one of the concertos or the Bach, but the orchestral excerpts are always going to be one of the requirements, so most players build up a folder of the most commonly requested ones. Some favourites include: the opening of Strauss’s Don Juan, Mendelssohn’s scherzo from A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the opening of the second movement of Beethoven 5th, the exposed soli passage from the first movement of Shostakovich 5, the equally exposed opening of Tchaikovsky’s Pathetique symphony (no. 6), the opening of Grieg’s Peer Gynt Suite, Vlatva from Smetana’s Ma Vlast, sections from Brahms 2nd symphony’s slow movement… I could go on!
9. Does the viola have a better or larger reputation in chamber music? I think of string quartets, I guess, where it makes up a quarter of the ensemble and acts as the tenor voice. I would imagine it perhaps plays a greater role in a more intimate setting like that. How does your role change in a smaller ensemble? In a slightly less related vein, what’s it like (more as a musician in general than a violist) rehearsing an opera? That seems far more complicated than rehearsing for a symphony, which is often a large work to begin with. 
I think the viola definitely has an essential role to play in chamber music, which for me is more enjoyable than playing orchestral music as it is more intimate and there is more space for individual expression and interpretation. From being part of a section of usually say, 6-18 violas and all playing the same part at the same time, you switch in chamber music to being the only player on your part and being able to take much more care of your individual sound and the nuances of the music. In a smaller ensemble like a quartet or trio, the viola’s role is primarily harmonic, but it also can be very melodic at times (see Dvorak’s American quartet, for example) – most composers, especially Romantic ones, allow the viola much more melodic freedom in chamber music than in orchestral music. The viola’s dual role of providing the inner voice in the middle of the texture and its occasional melodic interest make it extremely satisfying to play quartets and chamber music (most of the time – some viola parts to Haydn and Mozart quartets can be a little tedious sometimes!)
As for rehearsing an opera – yes, it can be a pretty complicated business! For the most part, how it works is the singers will have been rehearsing with a repetiteur (a pianist who specialises in opera accompaniment) while they are learning the score, and the orchestra will rehearse the orchestral parts separately. Then, when the singers are ready, both elements are brought together for a ‘sitzprobe’ rehearsal where the singers simply sing through their parts with the orchestra. Then the rehearsals become more detailed, building up to dress rehearsals and performances. I find playing opera fascinating, but at the same time a little frustrating, as nine times out of ten you can’t see what is going on!
10. Are there any situations where something has been written for the viola that shows the composer doesn’t really have a thorough understanding of the instrument? I would assume the glaringly obvious no-nos like unfeasible double stops or writing in Eb minor that are the same for the violin would also apply in this case, so that shouldn’t be a problem. 
Occasionally, composers do write impossible double stops or chords or ultra-fast passages that are really really difficult, but generally (in my experience anyway) composers are pretty good at understanding the limitations of the viola and what it is best and worst at doing. Some twentieth century composers like Birtwistle, Stockhausen and others who write atonal music do write passages that make you think, ‘Really?!’ but then you remind yourself that it is usually just an effect and so a close approximation will do!
11. What does a ‘decent’ viola run these days? I understand (at least good) string instruments, like good wine, get better as they age, so price isn’t necessarily indicative of quality. But what would a music major have to shell out to get a fine instrument?
Ah, the old price question! I guess it depends how much you have in your pocket to spend in the first place! But as a guide, most decent violas probably start at around £3000-4000 and can reach up to millions of pounds (you may have seen the recent publicity around the sale of the MacDonald Stradivarius viola, which was on the market for $45m but failed to sell). It depends also on whether you are set on a fine old instrument, which will typically cost more, especially if it is by a well known maker, or a modern instrument, which tends to make your money go further (although of course there are less and more expensive makers). Opinion is still divided on whether old instruments sound better than modern ones, but many players are starting to buy new or recently made instruments as the differences in sound are getting increasing smaller. One advantage of a modern instrument is that you get the chance to hear the sound of the instrument mature and develop as you play it. My viola is a modern viola by Juliet Barker, made in 1997, and I love its sound; since I’ve had it (about 5 years) I’ve definitely noticed improvements in its tone. Of course, don’t forget that players also have to purchase a decent bow to go with their instrument, which can again be expensive – a good student bow is probably around £500-£1000.
12. What is it like working in different ensembles? You told me you were freelancing, but even with some of well-known orchestras you mentioned (some of whose recordings I have!), I would think that may present challenges. How does that work, and why? A lack of violists? How common is freelancing? I think of a roster of an orchestra being ‘set in stone’ in many ways, but I guess it’s always changing. Related question below:
13.   I imagine someone walking into a rehearsal (almost like a blind date) and jumping into a piece you are probably already familiar with (otherwise adding a new layer of unfamiliarity!), and trying to settle in with an ensemble and director whose sound and style you may not be entirely familiar with. What’s that like?
Freelancing is very common, at least in the UK, for the reason I mentioned before – there are just not enough permanent jobs to go around. An orchestra will build up an ‘extras list’ of freelance players by holding auditions, and these players will be called up when there is a space in the section, usually because of sickness, players taking holiday or because the orchestra is doing a work that needs larger forces. The notice period that the extra player is given may vary, from being planned a long time in advance (when orchestras know that a particular player is unavailable) or very last minute, when someone is off sick.
You’re right, that there is an element of the blind date in freelancing, in that you’re not sure what to expect if it is your first time with the group and/or conductor. But most orchestras have a wide range of guest conductors, and are used to having freelance players in their midst, so they are geared up to the challenges of continually adapting to new situations and making players feel at home. As a freelance player, the challenge is to fit in to the section as quickly as possible and be as prepared as you can before the rehearsals so that you can concentrate fully on the conductor’s beat and suggestions, and follow your section principal and the concertmaster as closely as possible. There’s no doubt that doing all of this is pretty daunting, and freelance players have to be on their toes continually to adapt to each situation as fast as possible – but you do get used to it!
14. As a string musician in the ensemble, what style or era of music presents specific challenges for you? What is really challenging? I think of pieces like Stravinsky’s ballet music, notably the Rite of Spring, which was considered practically unplayable at the time, but has now reached a level of familiarity in the repertoire to make that seem silly. From your perspective, is there a composer or a style or even a specific symphony that especially presents challenges in interpretation, execution, or even just playing? 
As a viola player (but I think this would be true for violinists and cellists as well), I would say that the symphonic music of the late Romantic and early twentieth century periods is some of the most difficult to master – for example, composers like R. Strauss, Mahler, Elgar, Rachmaninov, Stravinsky, Ravel. This is simply because these composers liked to push the limits of what the instruments in the orchestra could do in terms of virtuosity, and wrote music that had many more extremes of tempi, dynamics and emotion than earlier music. Works like Strauss’s Alpine Symphonie, Ein Heldenleben, Rachmaninov’s Symphony No 2, Elgar’s Symphony No 2 and Maher’s symphonies are huge works that present many challenges technically and physically – not least because they require enormous stamina from the string players, who are rarely given any bars rest. Twentieth century and modern works are also often very difficult to play, as composers took their ideas even further and started to use extended techniques, aleatoric elements (where the music is based on chance) and to write in more obscure and atonal styles, meaning that the music is much harder to understand and pitch for players – particularly in music by composers like Birtwistle, Stockhausen and Webern. I recently played in Britten’s comic opera Albert Herring, which used a small group of players meaning I was the only viola. The music was brilliant and very witty, but since the tempo, key and time signatures were constantly changing, I had to be extremely alert and count all the time to make sure I was in the right place!
15. What makes up a day in your life? Rehearsals, your own practice, teaching; I think of these things as the main components of the musician’s life, but that may not be right. How do you balance these? Also… how does what many would refer to as a ‘hobby’ change when it becomes your career? Many people have said that once a pastime becomes a job, you need a new pastime. Have you found that to be the case?
The good thing about being a freelance musician and teacher is that there is a good variety of things that you might be doing from day to day, which means that you’re less likely to get bored! For me, I spend three days a week during the school term teaching violin, viola and a little bit of cello in primary and secondary schools and then I have some private pupils on top of this, so teaching makes up quite a lot of my time at the moment. On the days when I’m not teaching, I might have a rehearsal for my trio or another ensemble, do some private practice, do some research on teaching methods, plan lessons, catch up with teaching admin or listen to recordings of pieces I’m learning. It usually depends on what I’ve got coming up at that moment – if I have a concert or audition, then obviously I’ll do much more practice and make that my focus. The flexibility of this is really handy – if something comes up and I need to play in a concert at short notice, most of the time I’m able to make that work as my teaching can be shifted around to suit what I’m doing. I like that I get to travel around for my work and don’t stare at a computer screen all the time – I think I’d find it hard to work in an office all the time. Teaching is hard work but very rewarding – I find that the more you put in, the more the pupils take on board and the better the lesson, although doing this all day can be very exhausting!
I have always taken my music pretty seriously and becoming a musician was my dream from a young age – but yes, you’re right that having music as a hobby and doing it professionally are quite different things. I think for many people, playing becomes just something they do to earn a living, but for me, I’m still at the stage where I’m learning so much and exploring what I can do, so I still enjoy playing immensely. Teaching is also a welcome addition to my skills – all in all, I feel lucky to be paid for doing what I really enjoy!
Thanks so much for your insights and expertise. Aside from learning a ton more about the instrument, I also enjoy hearing about things from your perspective inside different ensembles. It’s funny, you also mentioned some of my favorite composers in your responses on your favorite and most difficult viola writing (Sibelius, Mahler, Rachmaninov 2, etc.)
I’m having enough trouble as it is learning violin, but I certainly know who to go to now with viola questions. Again, check out Ms. Wyatt’s own website for more information, appearances, and general viola goodness. Thanks again!


Lunchtime concert on Weds 26th Feb – 1.10pm, Younger Hall, St Andrews

It’s been a long while since I posted on here, but I thought I’d let you know that I’m giving a performance of Schubert’s lovely Arpegionne Sonata, plus Enesco’s fearsome Concertstuck, this Wednesday at 1.10pm in the Younger Hall, St Andrews with my friend and pianist Audrey Innes. This is a great programme – and, oddly, Audrey told me she had heard exactly the same programme broadcast on Radio 3 a while ago, with the recording of the Arpeggione taken from a concert in none other than the Younger Hall by Ukrainian violist Maxim Rysanov! (This was part of the St Andrews music club series and I was present – it was spectacular!)

Just in case you are interested, I’ve included below some short programme notes that will be used on Wednesday.

Other things that have been happening in the long period since I’ve posted a blog include: doing a series of lectures/talks on ‘Listening to Music’ for a local adult education service (quite scary but good for my public speaking), starting to play for a great quartet called the Roxburgh Quartet (we have a concert on 2nd March – more details soon) and an audition for the Halle orchestra in Manchester (I didn’t get in, but was pleased to be asked to audition).

Programme Notes for Wednesday 26th’s lunchtime recital with Audrey Innes, piano

Arpeggione Sonata, D 821    

Schubert (1797-1828)

I. Allegro moderato

II. Adagio

III. Allegretto

Franz Schubert is widely known as a prolific composer of Lieder, but also produced chamber music, stage works and symphonies. Like Beethoven, he spanned both the Classical and Romantic periods and was therefore influenced by composers of both eras. His style incorporates expressive lyricism and chromaticism while conforming to classical traditions – all features heard in this sonata. This sonata belongs to the same period as Schubert composed his ‘Death and the Maiden’ quartet – near the end of his life when he was suffering from the advanced stages of syphilis.

This sonata was written in 1824 for a new six-stringed, fretted instrument, the Arpeggione, which was similar to a bowed guitar but held between the knees like a viola da gamba. The instrument had been invented the previous year, and Schubert was obviously taken with it, as the sonata was dedicated to the arpeggionist Vincenz Schuster. Unfortunately this instrument was no longer in use by the time of the sonata’s posthumous publication in 1871, due to its awkwardness to play and its unsuitability as a solo instrument with piano (it had a quiet sound which was easily obscured). Since then it has been arranged for the viola, cello and double bass, and even some woodwind instruments and guitar. Transcription has had to address the smaller ranges of these instruments and the use of 4 versus 6 strings, which renders some of the passages very difficult for the viola in terms of string crossing and octaves – these passages were surely much easier on the Arpeggione!

The first movement, Allegro moderato, is characterised by contrasts in mood – the haunting A minor melody at the start demonstrates Schubert’s exceptional melodic gift, while the more animated, almost cheeky second subject suggests a bubbling brook in the repeated semiquavers and yodelling in the octave leaps (from the Viennese Alps). It is in Sonata form (a favourite of Schubert’s), dividing it into four sections: the exposition where the first and second subject are stated, the development where these themes are explored and transposed, the recapitulation where the original ideas are consolidated, and a final coda which returns to the minor – a nice piece of symmetry.

The lovely second movement uses a rising and falling melody, creating long, arch-like phrases which answer each other. There is a curious period towards the end where both piano and viola have long, held notes – static chords which are strange, unless Schubert meant for the players to improvise, but this is not marked. Slow quavers lead us into the last movement – a vivacious Allegretto which uses octave leaps (which are very uncomfortable to play for the viola!), fast passagework and pizzicato, before returning to the opening dotted melody.

Georges Enesco (1881 – 1955)

Concertstück for Viola and Piano

Georges Enesco (also known as Enescu) was a Romanian composer, violinist, pianist, conductor and teacher who taught a young Yehudi Menhuin. A child prodigy, he entered Vienna Conservatoire aged seven, graduated aged 13, then continued his studies in Paris, where he remained for much of his life. His works are heavily influenced by Romanian folk music and their melodies; his output includes two Romanian Rhapsodies, an opera, symphonies and much chamber music as well as solo works.

The Enesco Concertpiece, composed in 1906, is a rite of passage for young viola players. Technically demanding and virtuosic, is It is often performed as a competition piece to show off the technical abilities of the performer, or to add a final flourish to a recital (as it is used here!)

As well as the gorgeous, expressive melodies in this piece, it utilises various virtuosic techniques to show off the viola (which is not normally a particularly virtuosic instrument!) Ones to look and listen out for whilst listening to the piece include:

–        Fast chromatic triplet scales and scalic passages

–        Martèlé bowing (heavy, on the string at the tip of the bow)

–        Syncopated slurred bowings  (only found in Enesco’s music and extremely difficult to do)

–        Double-note semiquaver scales

–        Double stops in thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths and octaves, and chords

–        False harmonics

–        Alternating triplets, semiquavers, semiquaver quintuplets and semiquaver sextuplets

–        Very high notes (too high for the viola, really!)

2013 in review

The stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

A New York City subway train holds 1,200 people. This blog was viewed about 5,100 times in 2013. If it were a NYC subway train, it would take about 4 trips to carry that many people.

Click here to see the complete report.

Concerts in Oct and Nov

October and November are relatively busy months for me, as I have 3 chamber music concerts in short succession:

7.30pm Friday 25th October, Greyfriars Kirk, Edinburgh – St Patrick’s Ensemble play Johann Strauss and new commission “St Ambrose and the Bees” by Helene Grosvenor as part of a charity event : “Concert for Bees”

This concert will feature Paul Livingston, Daniel Miller, myself and James Tradgett playing a quartet of instruments called the “Sherlock Quartet”. These four instruments, 2 violins, a viola and a cello, were made by Steve Burnett from a 200-year old sycamore that stood in Arthur Conan Doyle’s childhood home in Liberton, Edinburgh, which he is said to have climbed as a child. The “Sherlock” violin was made by Burnett to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Conan Doyle’s birth and you can hear Paul playing it on Radio Scotland if you’re up early and tune in between  6.30am and 7am!

sherlock violin

1.10pm, Tues 12th Nov, Reid Hall, EdinburghLunchtime concert with Audrey Innes and Jean Murray as part of Edinburgh University Lunchtime Concert Series

I am playing the dramatic and beautiful Hindemith Viola Sonata Op 11 No 4 with Audrey, and Jean Murray with play the Hindemith flute sonata, again with Audrey on piano – a celebration of Paul Hindemith’s works!

1.10pm, Weds 20th Nov, Younger Hall, St Andrews – Lunchtime Concert with St Andrews String Trio

We’re playing Beethoven’s entertaining and boisterous Serenade No 8 and Schubert’s Trio in B flat, D471, so come along in your lunch hour if you work in St Andrews for some string chamber music (free to music centre members and £2 to non members)

1.10pm, Weds 27th Nov, Younger Hall, St Andrews – Lunchtime concert with Paul Livingston, violin

Mozart’s elegant Duo in B flat for violin and viola plus the showy Halvorsen arrangement of Handel’s G minor Chaconne and other pieces tbc.

Hope to see you at one or more of these concerts. Thanks for your support.

Concert today with Dame Emma Kirkby!

Concert today with Dame Emma Kirkby! Sat 28th Sept, 7pm, Holy Trinity Church, St Andrews

Come along to Holy Trinity Church tonight at 7pm for a baroque and classical feast of choral music to celebrate Tom Duncan’s 50th year as organist and choir-master of Holy Trinity Church! With Dame Emma Kirkby, soprano and Ben McAteer, baritone (and me playing viola as part of the Heisenberg Ensemble!)


Mozart – Laudate Dominum

Palestrina – Alma Redemptoris Mater

Haydn- Paukenmesse

Handel – The King Shall Rejoice

Bach – Suite in B minor (for flute and orchestra, solo Julie Duncan)

Gibbons – O Clap Your Hands

Heisenberg Ensemble and The Celebration Chorus, conducted by Gillian Craig

Tickets £10 on the door or by calling 01334 478317

My Portfolio Life: new academic year!

Keep Calm and Have a Cupcake!!Advice for stressed students from Bibi’s Bakery, South Street

It’s the second week of the new academic semester here in North East Fife, and the leaves are beginning to turn – it must be autumn already!  Apologies for the lack of news on here – it has been a somewhat eventful summer, and I haven’t had much time to write this blog due to illness getting in the way…  But I’m hoping  I can now get back to posting here fairly regularly, as this autumn seems to be gearing itself up to be a busy  semester with concerts and events, as you’ll see below!

I’ve also ordered myself some lovely new compliment slips, postcards and business cards which I’m quite excited about using! I’m trying to get myself organised and do stuff like that – part of being self employed, I guess.

Anyway, here’s a summary of the projects I’m involved with, and the concerts I have planned for the next few months!

New projects

St Andrews Smiles Better – my facebook page and a work in progress. Eventually I hope to be able to turn this into an official organisation/charity to help provide music and the arts in social care settings such as hospitals, care homes, schools and day centres. I’m still learning how to use a facebook ‘page’ so anybody with any experience, I’d love to speak to you!

Leuchars Military Wives Choir – I am now the “assistant musical director”jn of RAF Leuchars Military Wives Choir, a fancy way of saying I go to their rehearsals, play the piano for them and assist with music/warm ups/general musical stuff. This is very exciting for me, as I have written before about the impression that Gareth Malone’s Military Wives TV series had on me and the importance of community music. I feel very proud to be able to contribute something towards the running of such a group and very lucky to work with the amazing wives of RAF employees.

Projects I’m continuing with:

St Andrews and Fife Community Orchestra – I’m continuing my role as in previous years, taking sectionals, answering questions

Teaching – I’m now teaching in the St Andrews area only (not in South Fife or the East Neuk) and I’m continuing to enjoy sharing my experience of playing  and talking about all things string related  🙂 Cello subway

Image: Don’t forget your instrument when you travel!


Sunday 28th Sept, 7pm in Holy Trinity Church, St Andrews – Heisenberg Ensemble with Dame Emma Kirkby – Mozart, Bach, Palestrina, Gibbons (Tickets are £10, available through the church,  or by calling 01334 478317 or emailing holytrinity(at) replacing (at) with @)
Friday 25th October, Greyfriar’s Kirk, Edinburgh – St Patrick’s Ensemble play new music and Strauss, playing the “Sherlock Quartet” of instruments (more info to follow soon)
Tuesday 12th November, 1.10pm, Reid Hall, Edinburgh – lunchtime recital with Audrey Innes and Jean Murray – Hindemith Viola Sonata Op 11 no 4 and Hindemith Flute Sonata
Weds 20th Nov, 1.10pm, Younger Hall, St Andrews – Lunchtime recital with St Andrews String Trio – Schubert and Beethoven serenade
Weds 27th Nov, 1.10pm, Younger Hall, St Andrews – Lunchtime recital with Paul Livingston (Violin and Viola duo) – Programme TBC but probably including Mozart/Halvorsen

Further in the future, Audrey and I are planning another lunchtime concert in early 2014 – more details to follow as they are decided…!

A selection of funny classical music links!

If you, like me, are in need of some light relief, here are some hilarious depictions of classical musicians from long ago to the present day, posing inappropriately for photos and album covers:

(Courtesy of Classic FM)

The 20 worst album covers, EVER (featuring greats such as Rattle, Karajan, Nigel Kennedy and Julian Llyod Webber!!)

Particularly choice ones in my opinion are Julian and his cello on a plane together, whatever “Bachbusters” was supposed to be, and the epic fail of the pun in the “Handel” album cover. Bet they regret that one….


Some pretty awful “stock photos” of classical musicians doing their best NOT to look silly posing, and failing miserably:

22 terrible stock photos of classical musicians

Why is it that sometimes perfectly good musicians lose their sense of proportion and do outrageous things, with embarrassing results? We will never, ever know….


Nice one, Classic FM. It’s good to see that even stars like Rattle have their embarassing photos to look back on – I bet he cringes every time someone brings it up…




Concert tomorrow!

Well, the day before the concert has arrived. Here is the final (or not so final…) line up:

Jess – selection of unaccompanied Bach from Cello Suites (gigues and menuets)

Trio – Schubert movement (Violin/viola/cello)
Clarinet and piano duo – lighter music… TBC
Trad Scottish tunes (viola) TBC
Watch this space for repertoire developments!! Or simply turn up at 1pm tomorrow and come to the concert! Your choice 🙂

All pieces performed by current or past members of the Heisenberg Ensemble, in aid of the 25th Anniversary Fund. Admission free but retiring collection with be taken, Refreshments available from 12.15pm.




Hope to see you there!! 🙂


Jess xxx

Taking the plunge…

Those of you who read this blog regularly will know that for a long time now I have had a project in the back of my mind: a social project connected with the power of the arts to transform lives for the better. Having spent time in a hospital recently, a lot of things have become clearer to me: the power of human kindness, patience, compassion and above all, a little space to live your own life in.

I have been wondering, waiting and worrying, as I am wont to do, about the timing of such a project, the feasibility issues, the cost, the practical logistics, when I thought: ‘it might be now, or never’. So I took a chance, A risk, some might say. I took the plunge. I’m still not sure that it was the “right” thing to do, but perhaps I never will be, and anyway, I’m not sure that that is the important thing here.

The important thing is:

I did something. Not Nothing. And that means something.

I did it. Here goes. I said it.

 St Andrews Smiles Better Facebook Page – An experiment in positive thinking

“Don’t Ration Compassion” (a monk at Samye Ling Monastery, fieldwork, 2009)

This project is extremely close to my heart. So many people have touched my life in different ways, that I find it very hard not to say Thanks every time someone does something nice for me. So I want to pass it on. Play it forward. Form my own “Karma Army” like Danny Wallace. Help local businesses succeed and create employment opportunities. Play music to people to cheer them up. Do random acts of kindness and smile at people I don’t know. 


Thank you all for reading.



Jess xxxxxxxxxxx