Category Archives: Articles and comment

Fugue for Thought Podcast: A Viola Player Speaks, Part 1

Here’s a link to the blog article by Alan Missroon of Fugue For Thought that mentions the podcast that we recorded recently. I was inteviewed by Alan for an article for his blog back in 2014, and Alan was keen to talk to me about more viola related things, and this is the result! We talk about viola repertoire including concertos, being a viola player in the orchestra, recitals and a recent masterclass I did with Martin Outram, and much more!



Podcast with Jess Wyatt of A Viola Player Writes. Listen to the episode in iTunes or via Podbean. This is Jess’s Facebook page. Jess Wyatt was another of my early guest interviewees who I burdened wi…

Source: Podcast: A Viola Player Speaks, Part 1


What I’m most likely to say when I’m teaching…

Now that I’ve got some years of teaching under my belt, here are a few of the things I find myself saying most often in lessons to students, whether they are very young or old, or are very experienced or have only had a few lessons:

  • Watch your rhythm! A surprising number of people will unconsciously play minims as crochets, or more commonly crotchets as quavers, and I know that even I do things like this occasionally! My jobs is to point out where students are playing the wrong rhythm and encourage them to count and not guess where the beats are! A good sense of rhythm is so key to playing any instrument – I often tell my pupils that I’d rather they played the correct rhythm and missed a few notes than paused and played the right notes! It is often a good idea to take some time out to work on rhythms – clapping rhythms at sight or saying rhythm names like ‘ta’ and ‘te-te’ or ‘tea’ and ‘coffee’ really helps.
  • Use more bow on long notes: a lot of beginner students, and some more advanced ones, tend to use tiny bows for everything, especially long notes, producing a sound I like to called ‘mousy’. In order to encourage them to use more bow and produce a bigger sound, I tell them to try and use the whole bow, from the grip to almost the point, and I often put stickers on the bow (marking just above the grip, the middle and just below the tip) so that there is a visual aid for them, as some find it hard to tell. For more advanced students, practising scales and exercises with whole bows is key – just getting them to learn what the movement of their hand and arm feels like when they use the whole bow is sometimes new to them (see below).
  • Make sure your bow is parallel with the bridge right to the tip – this is an extremely common fault, especially in viola players where the instrument is large and the bow is long. Bowing at an angle, either with the bow angled towards or away from the bridge, will cause the sound to become uneven and break, and the player will experience difficulty at the tip and frog. Sometimes guiding the student’s hand all the way through the bow, or placing your bow to form a ‘guide’ across the strings while they bow will help, though a lot of the time the student will go back to old habits when they play their pieces. Practising open strings and easy scales in a mirror to check the bow is straight will help, but if bowing crooked becomes a habit then it is more difficult to correct, so teachers should be vigilant when beginners first start to use the bow.
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  • Use less bow on short, fast notes – it is so common for students to come to me with difficult fast passages complaining of not being able to play them, when they are using far too much bow. One of my favourite mantras at the moment is ‘Keep Calm and Use Less Bow’ – one student said I should get a mug with this on it! Generally, the faster the passage and the shorter the notes in it, the less bow you need – for really fast semiquavers, I only use about a centimetre or less. This is a revelation for most people and can easily transform a messy passage (think Vivaldi Concerto in A minor for example) into something much more neat and controlled.


  • Bent thumb in bow hold – this is a common fault with the bow hold experienced by most beginners and sometime more advanced players. The right thumb needs to be nicely curved outwards, not inwards or straight, otherwise the fingers and wrist will stiffen and the bowhold becomes locked in position, making it much more difficult to bow and impossible to create any subtlety in the sound. Bow hold exercises such as bending and flexing the thumb ought to help with this, but constant reminders are often necessary! See this video for how to hold a violin or viola bow
  • Stand properly – no standing on one leg/slouching/standing in ballet positions! Correct posture is vital for a good sound, so get into the habit of standing with feet shoulder width apart, left foot slightly in front of right foot and shoulders and arms relaxed when the instrument is in position. A common fault is to let the scroll droop, especially with the heavy viola – I often say to children ‘imagine a balloon tied to your scroll!’


  • Observe ALL the markings in the music – bowings, slurs, articulation, tempo but ESPECIALLY key signatures! I can’t stress how important this is for anyone learning a musical instrument. I often have students who will ‘bulldoze’ their way through a piece ignoring accidentals, bowings, slurrings and sometimes not even playing all the notes! Cue me pointing out all the things they have missed and the student listening with glazed eyes… Attention to detail is really important in music, as the difference between F sharp and F natural in a key signature of D major is fundamental to the music, but may be easily missed if the key signature is ignored. Understanding key signatures is difficult but an essential piece of theory that no musician can be without, so starting early with the concept of keys and sharps/flats is sensible.



Recent interview for Fugue for Thought – questions about the viola

A little while ago I was contacted by the writer of a blog called ‘Fugue for Thought’, Alan Missroon, who wanted to know whether I’d be happy to be interviewed for the blog about the viola and my experiences of playing it. Of course, I said yes, so here’s the resulting interview – there were lots of very in depth questions, so if you don’t get through it all, don’t worry! It covers subjects such as: why I started playing the viola, my favourite pieces for viola, the viola’s role in chamber and orchestral music, differences between the violin and viola and in techniques of playing them, life as a musician and a lot more!

Fugue for thought interview

The blog is also fascinating, if you get a chance to have a look around – for example, I learnt that July 28th (my birthday) is the day that both Vivaldi and Bach died.

Full text of the interview:

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

The Ensemble: the viola

An interview with Jessica Wyatt
Photo courtesy Gillian Gamble
I’m so glad to have our second interview for our (roughly) monthly series on the members and sections of the orchestra.
Part of the reason I am always beyond thrilled and giddy to prepare and read these is that I just love people who know what they’re talking about. It is so exciting to me to hear people speak on what they are passionate about and know intimately, and our guest today, Ms. Wyatt, has wonderfully insightful answers to my questions about the viola.  You can have a look at her website here.
While the viola has been described as “the Cinderella of the strings,” Ms. Wyatt assures us that it is an exciting, challenging and beautiful part of the orchestra, and I was thrilled to have a chance to hear her insight on her instrument of choice.
I’m so glad to have you with us here today, Jess. Let’s get started!
1.  What is your first memory of the viola? Is it what you started on? Tell us about that decision.
My first memory of the viola is when my violin teacher asked me, aged 10, whether I would like to play the viola and explained to me what it was – that it was like a bigger and deeper version of a violin. She must have played something to me on her viola, but oddly I don’t remember that very clearly… I remember asking my parents, and them agreeing
to buy me a small viola (the same size as a full size violin but definitely viola, not a violin strung as a viola – we’ll talk about the differences later!) if I passed my Grade 5 violin exam. I had started violin aged 8, and remember pestering my mother for a good while before she would let me start lessons – she used to sing in a local choral society, and as a child I would go along to concerts and would sit fascinated, watching the players in the orchestra. When I got it, I was so proud of my new viola – I had passed the exam with flying colours, and my dad had to go to London to a special shop to get the viola, and I was very excited to try this new instrument. Of course, I had to learn to read the alto clef, but that didn’t prove too much of a problem and I think from my first days of playing the instrument, I was hooked on its sound – mellower and rounder compared with the violin.
2.  Does a violist use the same etudes and practice material that a violinist would use? We will talk about some of the differences between the two instruments in a bit, but it seems the viola has a limited enough repertoire. Do you resort to using exercises written for violin? I would also think differences in technique may require more specific exercises. 
Violists, as you say, have a much smaller repertoire than violinists, so yes, we do tend to borrow from the violin repertoire! Studies and technical material, for example the famous violin studies like Kreutzer, Paganini, Sevcik, Wohlfahrt and the Flesch Scale system have all been transcribed for the viola and are considered core material for the development of basic technique. But there are some viola specific etudes too – Campagnoli’s 41 Caprices,  Watson Forbes ‘Daily Exercises’ and Palaschko, as well as an increasing amount of material being written for viola by both violists and composers – for example, Garth Knox’s Viola Spaces which focus on extended techniques. But it is important to bear in mind that many violists learn to play the violin before transferring to the viola, or indeed play both instruments, so the overlap of knowledge, techniques and abilities between the instruments is substantial. Having said that, there are aspects of playing the viola that are technically more challenging than the violin and thus require more attention and work – using studies, scales and whatever else comes to hand!
3. Tell me a bit about the differences between the viola and the violin, aside from ‘bigger’ and ‘lower’. I know that being slightly larger brings with it some unique differences. Also, how is it that many people find the tone of the viola to be ‘nasally’ or ‘whiny’ when the violin sings sweetly and the cello is deep and rich? Is it just because of its register right between the two?
The viola is the instrument that sits in between the violin’s range (the treble register) and the cello’s (the bass register). It can therefore be considered the alto voice of the string section and often takes on a more harmonising role, sitting in the middle of the texture. Structurally, the viola has a larger body than the violin, allowing more air to resonate inside it, and lower pitched strings – a fifth lower than the violin, meaning that it shares 3 strings with the violin (a violin’s strings from the top are E A D G, and a viola’s are A D G C). The viola’s strings, however, are thicker than the violin’s and harder to make resonate – so the viola player must work harder with the bow and use more weight to make the strings sound and produce a good tone. Because of its larger size, the viola is also heavier than the violin, and the bow is also heavier, with a more robust stick and more hair than the violin bow – all of these things make the viola a physically more demanding instrument than the violin to play, and is the reason viola players have to be very careful with their set-ups to avoid injury due to playing. The viola is a challenging instrument to play – but well worth it, I believe! – as the quality of sound is so beautiful and unique – somewhere between the richness and pathos of a cello, the purity of the human voice, and the sweetness of the violin. I personally haven’t ever heard people comment that the viola’s tone is ‘nasal’ or ‘whiny’ – I can only assume that the viola playing that they have heard hasn’t been of the best quality! The instrument itself has an innate resonance which lends it a greater depth of sound than the smaller violin.
4. I read in one of your articles about there not really being a standard size for violas, and that there is a range of a few inches’ worth of difference in length. Does this not affect the tone quality and/or pitch? That was something I didn’t know, and it seemed odd. What does one consider when looking for the right size?
Yes, it is correct that there is no ‘standard’ full size for violas, as there is for most other instruments – for example, a full size violin always has a back length of 14 inches (give or take a few millimetres). With violas, the back length (basically the length of the body of the instrument, excluding the neck) can vary from anything as small as 15 inches to as large as 18 inches, although these are rare and tend to be older instruments (such as Amati and Gasparo da Salo). The pitch of the instrument is not affected by the variation in size, as all viola strings are tuned to the same pitches (even if the string length varies), but the depth and resonance of the sound are affected – the larger the viola, the deeper the sound.
I’d say the most popular sizes of viola are between about 15 ½ inches and 17 inches, with most professionals choosing ones of about 16-16.5 inches, depending on the size of the player and the tone qualities they want from their instrument. There is always a compromise when choosing the size of a viola – a larger one will produce a deeper and richer sound, but comes at the price of being harder to manage, so most violists try to find the largest instrument they can comfortably play without over-stretching themselves and causing injury. My viola is 15 3/8 inches (yes, they can be rather over precise sometimes!) but its ribs (the pieces of wood making up the sides of the instrument) are quite deep and so it produces a bigger and richer sound than one of the same size but thinner ribs. In order to overcome the problem of the larger size violas being unplayable, some violists and violin makers have even invented their own patterns of viola which combine the richness of a large viola with a smaller body. Lionel Tertis, the famous English viola virtuoso, invented the ‘Tertis’ pattern of viola, which combines the sound of a larger viola in a more manageable 16 ¾ body length (but that is still quite a large viola for most people!) More recently, makers have tried redesigning the viola, sometimes with bizarre results (David Rivinus’ Pellegrina viola looks like something out of Salvador Dali), but all with the aim of making the viola more ergonomic to play whilst keeping its rich sound.
(See this article for an in depth consideration of viola size – technical though!)
(Info on Ergonomic violas can be found at this website)
5. Aside from the specific challenges mentioned above regarding size and larger, thicker strings, etc. are there any other challenges that the instrument presents, either individually or in orchestration, etc.?
As an instrument that sits in the middle register, the viola as a solo instrument has to work harder to project itself above an orchestra than either the cello, which has power on its side, or the violin, which has the advantage of a stratospheric range. This means that when violists play concertos with orchestra, the conductor has to make allowances for the difficulties with projection and make sure the orchestra doesn’t overpower the soloist in loud passages. In orchestral works, usually there is less of a problem with projection as if composers want to make the viola come out of the texture, they usually compensate for its middle register by reducing other orchestration at that point, but also in orchestras there are usually enough violas in the section to make themselves heard!
6. Is it ‘easier’ to find openings or auditions for viola parts? I’ve heard it said before that competition is far less fierce for viola chairs than for violin or cello, since there are far fewer violists. Has this been the case in your experience?
I would say that in my experience in the UK, due to the fact that there are always fewer chairs for viola than violin in an orchestra, it is almost harder to get a permanent job in an orchestra! There are always more violists around than jobs available, so competition is pretty intense for any job that comes up as they are so scarce. I’ve been at auditions in Scotland where players have come from Europe and even further afield to try and get the job! That said, if you are freelancing, gigs sometimes are easier to come by if you are a viola player – it just depends on the gig, the area you’re in and whether there are lots of players nearby.
7. Tell me about your favorite pieces in the viola repertoire, and why you love them. Did the viola have or does it have a heyday? I can’t think of many famous violist-composers or even pieces. Hindemith and Walton come to mind, and that’s about it. Do you particularly enjoy the viola writing (in the orchestra, not solo) from any specific composer(s)?
There are many wonderful pieces written for the viola, but some of my particular favourites are: the two Brahms sonatas Op 120, one in E flat and one in F minor, the Walton Viola Concerto, Berlioz’s Harold in Italy and Schumann’s Marchenbilder (Fairy-Tale Pictures) for viola and Piano. Starting with the Brahms, some might say that these don’t count, as they were originally written for clarinet, but Brahms himself transcribed them for viola and they work wonderfully well with the instrument’s darker tone – especially the F minor sonata’s foreboding first movement. The sweetness of the viola’s A string help to bring out the wonderful lyrical melodies and the long lines in both sonatas, and one of my favourite moments is the grandioso feel of the second movement in the Eb sonata – you can really put so much into it!
The Walton concerto is a masterpiece – the ethereal opening with the viola soaring above the orchestra is spine-tingling, followed by more chromatic sections and a dramatic cadenza-like passage of parallel double stopped sixths which you can really pull around to maximise the tension! It is virtuosic yet (mostly) manageable, and is a rite of passage for young viola players, but the work’s poetic, melancholy feel matches the tonal colours of the viola perfectly. The concerto was originally written for Lionel Tertis, the first great virtuoso exponent of the viola and the man who brought the viola to prominence as a solo instrument; ironically, Tertis pronounced the concerto ‘too modern’ and so Hindemith gave the first performance of the concerto instead! I suppose this period from the 1920s until the 1980s, during the lives of Tertis, Hindemith and the other great exponent of the viola, William Primrose, could be described as the ‘heyday’ of the viola – it was finally leaving its role as the ‘Cinderella’ of the orchestra behind and being heard as a solo instrument in its own right. During this period, much viola music was composed – Bax, Bridge, York Bowen, Benjamin Dale and Holst all wrote pieces for Tertis, and Britten and Bartok wrote now the famous Lachrymae and the viola concerto for Primrose.
Going back to my favourite pieces, the Berlioz and Schumann are both wonderful character pieces – the first is a programmatic symphony ‘with viola obbligato’, where the viola plays the role of the Byron’s Childe Harolde from his poem of the same name and explores the various scenes in the countryside of the Abruzzi mountains.  The Schumann Fairy-Tales are just that – scenes from fairy tales such as Rapunzel and Rumpelstiltskin, cleverly depicted using the full palette of the viola’s colours from melancholy to exuberant.
As for composers whose orchestral viola writing I particularly enjoy, I always love romantic works as they often exploit the viola’s qualities well – symphonies by Brahms, Sibelius, Tchaikovsky and Elgar all have great passages written for viola (or ‘viola moments’ as we like to call them!) But unfortunately, these composers also write music that is quite challenging technically (see the answer to question 14 below!) – so in the same piece, you might get a wonderful tune to play followed by a very difficult piece of passagework… Sometimes one cancels the other out!
(For some detailed programme notes on the Brahms E flat sonata and Walton concerto that I wrote for a recital, check out this page)
8. Along with that, what are the typical go-to pieces in the viola repertoire that show up on auditions? It seems Strauss’s Don Juan gets a mention for almost every part. What can a violist expect to see in an audition?
Almost all viola auditions will ask for the following (which is similar to what is asked in violin and cello auditions, only our range of pieces is smaller). Depending on whether the audition is for a tutti or principal viola, there may be more or different requirements.
  • The first movement of a classical concerto, which for viola players is either the Hoffmeister Concerto in D or the Stamitz Concerto in D (neither is a particularly exciting concerto and in fact they are pretty similar in style and execution!)
  • The first movement of a twentieth century concerto – either the Walton, Bartok or Hindemith’s Der Schwanendreher
  • One movement from a Bach Cello Suite or Violin Sonata or Partita
Orchestral Excerpts
Occasionally a piece of your own choice is substituted for one of the concertos or the Bach, but the orchestral excerpts are always going to be one of the requirements, so most players build up a folder of the most commonly requested ones. Some favourites include: the opening of Strauss’s Don Juan, Mendelssohn’s scherzo from A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the opening of the second movement of Beethoven 5th, the exposed soli passage from the first movement of Shostakovich 5, the equally exposed opening of Tchaikovsky’s Pathetique symphony (no. 6), the opening of Grieg’s Peer Gynt Suite, Vlatva from Smetana’s Ma Vlast, sections from Brahms 2nd symphony’s slow movement… I could go on!
9. Does the viola have a better or larger reputation in chamber music? I think of string quartets, I guess, where it makes up a quarter of the ensemble and acts as the tenor voice. I would imagine it perhaps plays a greater role in a more intimate setting like that. How does your role change in a smaller ensemble? In a slightly less related vein, what’s it like (more as a musician in general than a violist) rehearsing an opera? That seems far more complicated than rehearsing for a symphony, which is often a large work to begin with. 
I think the viola definitely has an essential role to play in chamber music, which for me is more enjoyable than playing orchestral music as it is more intimate and there is more space for individual expression and interpretation. From being part of a section of usually say, 6-18 violas and all playing the same part at the same time, you switch in chamber music to being the only player on your part and being able to take much more care of your individual sound and the nuances of the music. In a smaller ensemble like a quartet or trio, the viola’s role is primarily harmonic, but it also can be very melodic at times (see Dvorak’s American quartet, for example) – most composers, especially Romantic ones, allow the viola much more melodic freedom in chamber music than in orchestral music. The viola’s dual role of providing the inner voice in the middle of the texture and its occasional melodic interest make it extremely satisfying to play quartets and chamber music (most of the time – some viola parts to Haydn and Mozart quartets can be a little tedious sometimes!)
As for rehearsing an opera – yes, it can be a pretty complicated business! For the most part, how it works is the singers will have been rehearsing with a repetiteur (a pianist who specialises in opera accompaniment) while they are learning the score, and the orchestra will rehearse the orchestral parts separately. Then, when the singers are ready, both elements are brought together for a ‘sitzprobe’ rehearsal where the singers simply sing through their parts with the orchestra. Then the rehearsals become more detailed, building up to dress rehearsals and performances. I find playing opera fascinating, but at the same time a little frustrating, as nine times out of ten you can’t see what is going on!
10. Are there any situations where something has been written for the viola that shows the composer doesn’t really have a thorough understanding of the instrument? I would assume the glaringly obvious no-nos like unfeasible double stops or writing in Eb minor that are the same for the violin would also apply in this case, so that shouldn’t be a problem. 
Occasionally, composers do write impossible double stops or chords or ultra-fast passages that are really really difficult, but generally (in my experience anyway) composers are pretty good at understanding the limitations of the viola and what it is best and worst at doing. Some twentieth century composers like Birtwistle, Stockhausen and others who write atonal music do write passages that make you think, ‘Really?!’ but then you remind yourself that it is usually just an effect and so a close approximation will do!
11. What does a ‘decent’ viola run these days? I understand (at least good) string instruments, like good wine, get better as they age, so price isn’t necessarily indicative of quality. But what would a music major have to shell out to get a fine instrument?
Ah, the old price question! I guess it depends how much you have in your pocket to spend in the first place! But as a guide, most decent violas probably start at around £3000-4000 and can reach up to millions of pounds (you may have seen the recent publicity around the sale of the MacDonald Stradivarius viola, which was on the market for $45m but failed to sell). It depends also on whether you are set on a fine old instrument, which will typically cost more, especially if it is by a well known maker, or a modern instrument, which tends to make your money go further (although of course there are less and more expensive makers). Opinion is still divided on whether old instruments sound better than modern ones, but many players are starting to buy new or recently made instruments as the differences in sound are getting increasing smaller. One advantage of a modern instrument is that you get the chance to hear the sound of the instrument mature and develop as you play it. My viola is a modern viola by Juliet Barker, made in 1997, and I love its sound; since I’ve had it (about 5 years) I’ve definitely noticed improvements in its tone. Of course, don’t forget that players also have to purchase a decent bow to go with their instrument, which can again be expensive – a good student bow is probably around £500-£1000.
12. What is it like working in different ensembles? You told me you were freelancing, but even with some of well-known orchestras you mentioned (some of whose recordings I have!), I would think that may present challenges. How does that work, and why? A lack of violists? How common is freelancing? I think of a roster of an orchestra being ‘set in stone’ in many ways, but I guess it’s always changing. Related question below:
13.   I imagine someone walking into a rehearsal (almost like a blind date) and jumping into a piece you are probably already familiar with (otherwise adding a new layer of unfamiliarity!), and trying to settle in with an ensemble and director whose sound and style you may not be entirely familiar with. What’s that like?
Freelancing is very common, at least in the UK, for the reason I mentioned before – there are just not enough permanent jobs to go around. An orchestra will build up an ‘extras list’ of freelance players by holding auditions, and these players will be called up when there is a space in the section, usually because of sickness, players taking holiday or because the orchestra is doing a work that needs larger forces. The notice period that the extra player is given may vary, from being planned a long time in advance (when orchestras know that a particular player is unavailable) or very last minute, when someone is off sick.
You’re right, that there is an element of the blind date in freelancing, in that you’re not sure what to expect if it is your first time with the group and/or conductor. But most orchestras have a wide range of guest conductors, and are used to having freelance players in their midst, so they are geared up to the challenges of continually adapting to new situations and making players feel at home. As a freelance player, the challenge is to fit in to the section as quickly as possible and be as prepared as you can before the rehearsals so that you can concentrate fully on the conductor’s beat and suggestions, and follow your section principal and the concertmaster as closely as possible. There’s no doubt that doing all of this is pretty daunting, and freelance players have to be on their toes continually to adapt to each situation as fast as possible – but you do get used to it!
14. As a string musician in the ensemble, what style or era of music presents specific challenges for you? What is really challenging? I think of pieces like Stravinsky’s ballet music, notably the Rite of Spring, which was considered practically unplayable at the time, but has now reached a level of familiarity in the repertoire to make that seem silly. From your perspective, is there a composer or a style or even a specific symphony that especially presents challenges in interpretation, execution, or even just playing? 
As a viola player (but I think this would be true for violinists and cellists as well), I would say that the symphonic music of the late Romantic and early twentieth century periods is some of the most difficult to master – for example, composers like R. Strauss, Mahler, Elgar, Rachmaninov, Stravinsky, Ravel. This is simply because these composers liked to push the limits of what the instruments in the orchestra could do in terms of virtuosity, and wrote music that had many more extremes of tempi, dynamics and emotion than earlier music. Works like Strauss’s Alpine Symphonie, Ein Heldenleben, Rachmaninov’s Symphony No 2, Elgar’s Symphony No 2 and Maher’s symphonies are huge works that present many challenges technically and physically – not least because they require enormous stamina from the string players, who are rarely given any bars rest. Twentieth century and modern works are also often very difficult to play, as composers took their ideas even further and started to use extended techniques, aleatoric elements (where the music is based on chance) and to write in more obscure and atonal styles, meaning that the music is much harder to understand and pitch for players – particularly in music by composers like Birtwistle, Stockhausen and Webern. I recently played in Britten’s comic opera Albert Herring, which used a small group of players meaning I was the only viola. The music was brilliant and very witty, but since the tempo, key and time signatures were constantly changing, I had to be extremely alert and count all the time to make sure I was in the right place!
15. What makes up a day in your life? Rehearsals, your own practice, teaching; I think of these things as the main components of the musician’s life, but that may not be right. How do you balance these? Also… how does what many would refer to as a ‘hobby’ change when it becomes your career? Many people have said that once a pastime becomes a job, you need a new pastime. Have you found that to be the case?
The good thing about being a freelance musician and teacher is that there is a good variety of things that you might be doing from day to day, which means that you’re less likely to get bored! For me, I spend three days a week during the school term teaching violin, viola and a little bit of cello in primary and secondary schools and then I have some private pupils on top of this, so teaching makes up quite a lot of my time at the moment. On the days when I’m not teaching, I might have a rehearsal for my trio or another ensemble, do some private practice, do some research on teaching methods, plan lessons, catch up with teaching admin or listen to recordings of pieces I’m learning. It usually depends on what I’ve got coming up at that moment – if I have a concert or audition, then obviously I’ll do much more practice and make that my focus. The flexibility of this is really handy – if something comes up and I need to play in a concert at short notice, most of the time I’m able to make that work as my teaching can be shifted around to suit what I’m doing. I like that I get to travel around for my work and don’t stare at a computer screen all the time – I think I’d find it hard to work in an office all the time. Teaching is hard work but very rewarding – I find that the more you put in, the more the pupils take on board and the better the lesson, although doing this all day can be very exhausting!
I have always taken my music pretty seriously and becoming a musician was my dream from a young age – but yes, you’re right that having music as a hobby and doing it professionally are quite different things. I think for many people, playing becomes just something they do to earn a living, but for me, I’m still at the stage where I’m learning so much and exploring what I can do, so I still enjoy playing immensely. Teaching is also a welcome addition to my skills – all in all, I feel lucky to be paid for doing what I really enjoy!
Thanks so much for your insights and expertise. Aside from learning a ton more about the instrument, I also enjoy hearing about things from your perspective inside different ensembles. It’s funny, you also mentioned some of my favorite composers in your responses on your favorite and most difficult viola writing (Sibelius, Mahler, Rachmaninov 2, etc.)
I’m having enough trouble as it is learning violin, but I certainly know who to go to now with viola questions. Again, check out Ms. Wyatt’s own website for more information, appearances, and general viola goodness. Thanks again!


Rapture on the Edge of a Dime

Robert Baldwin’s beautifully vivid description of the ‘in the moment’ feeling musicians feel when we play music. Psychologists call it ‘flow’, jazz musicians say it is when they are ‘in the groove’, but I prefer to think of it as a kind of timelessness, where actual reality is suspended. When we play music, all we as performers can (or should) think of is the music and how to physically produce it from our instruments to make it seem as effortless and convincing as possible. I always look for that feeling in a great soloist or musician – if they are making something incredibly hard look easy, then they are truly a great artist.

Rapture on the Edge of a Dime.

Teaching students how to practise

As an instrumental teacher, I’m often asked by parents how much they think their children should practise their instruments, or told proudly that they practise every day or even twice a day. In turn, I often ask my pupils how much they practise, which is most often met with a sheepish grin and a muttered ‘…um…’

We all know the old adage ‘practice makes perfect’, and as a professional musician myself, I know from experience that this is all too true. Behind every polished performance are hours and hours of dedicated rehearsal, practice, memorisation and close analysis of problems and their solutions. What not everyone knows, however, is how to practise so that the time spent practising is spent in the best possible way; in other words, how to achieve the most in the limited amount of time that is allotted to practising.

Many children, and adult learners for that matter, have not been told the fundamentals of how to practise a piece in order to correct the mistakes that their teacher points out to them. How to practise is part of the fundamental toolkit of every musician, which includes basics such as how to tune your instrument, how to hold it correctly and make the best sound from it, and how to improve your own playing.

As a teacher, I don’t like to spoon-feed my pupils – I like to try and challenge them with questions about what they are playing, why, what this means and so on. But I had sort of assumed – and this was a dangerous assumption – that most children know how to practise in such a way that they can improve and see their own improvement. I now know that I should be telling all my pupils the basics of how to practise a piece, and not just assume that this is obvious – as to an adult, practising the difficult bits of a piece more than the easier bits is common sense.

In my experience as a teacher, children tend to play their pieces through from beginning to end, often as fast as possible, and it doesn’t really occur to them that this might not be the most effective way of practising them. What often happens is that the same mistakes get repeated every time they play the piece through, and as such become ‘part’ of the piece and the way they play it, making it even more difficult for the teacher to correct when the mistake is pointed out. These habitual mistakes can be addressed, but what is much more effective is pointing out that playing the more difficult bars or sections of a piece on their own repeatedly until they became easier, then fitting them back into the piece, is a much better way of approaching the difficulties of a piece. Of course the piece must be played through from time to time to prepare it for performance, but variety is important – many teachers have emphasised to me the importance of not always starting at the beginning of a piece.

So, here’s my guide to mindful practising:

How to practise a piece mindfully – and really improve

  • Play the piece through to get an overview of the technical and musical challenges presented by it
  • Identify and isolate the difficult bars of the piece
  • Play these bars on their own, slowly if necessary,  become aware of the problems and work out solutions to these problems (e.g. bowings, shifts, fingerings)
  • Once you have worked out the solutions to the problems, play the difficult bars until you are satisfied that they are improving (this may take a long time in the case of very difficult music!)
  • Play the bars in context again, making sure that the join between the difficult bars and the others is practised thoroughly
  • Play the piece through again, this time being aware of the difficult bars and (hopefully) their improvement
  • Repeat the process regularly!

Unfortunately, there are no shortcuts to learning a musical instrument, but if this kind of mindful practice can be learnt and applied, then it will make the process of learning to play music more rewarding and less frustrating for the pupil. In other words, it is the quality, not the quantity, of practice that really matters!

For more information on how to practise and for discussions of many other issues that musicians face, see the blog of The Bulletproof Musician


“The right kind of practice is not a matter of hours. Practice should
represent the utmost concentration of brain. It is better to play with
concentration for two hours than to practice eight without. I should say
that four hours would be a good maximum practice time—I never ask
more of my pupils—and that during each minute of the time the brain be
as active as the fingers.”
 -Leopold Auer

Everything you’ve always wanted to know about the viola (but were too afraid to ask)

Inspired by all the questions I usually get asked about playing the viola, I’ve decided to write answers to the more frequently asked questions. This post has turned into a longer one than I expected, so I’ll be impressed if you make it through it all. Hopefully you’ll learn something new about the viola though!

What is a viola? What is the difference between a violin and a viola?

A viola is often described as a ‘big violin’, which is a pretty accurate, if rough, description. A viola is larger than a violin in all dimensions – it is longer, deeper and a little chunkier, but the most significant difference between a violin and a viola is that the viola’s sound is lower in pitch (a fifth lower, to be precise) than the violin, and its tone is richer, rounder and mellower compared to the violin’s brilliant, flashy sound. The viola shares its 3 highest strings with the violin, but has one string a fifth lower, so instead of the violin’s E-A-D-G strings, its strings are A-D-G-C. The viola is the second highest instrument in the violin family, coming in pitch between the violin and cello, and the viola is the middle section in an orchestra.

How do you read the alto clef?

Lots of people ask me how I can read ‘that weird alto clef’ and my answer is usually the same every time – it is no different from reading any other clef, except that fewer people know how to read it, as fewer people play instruments that use it (it is also used for the viola da gamba and the alto trombone – rarer instruments than the viola!)

It is a little known fact that violists have to read not only their own clef, but also the treble clef, as when we play high passages it is much easier to read in treble clef than read millions of ledger lines. This is fine, but it does lead to difficulties when sight-reading when the clef changes half way through a line (or even worse, at the end of a line), and also embarrassing moments when you play loudly in the wrong clef…

Why is the viola sometimes called the ‘Cinderella’ of the orchestra?

The viola has been under-represented as a solo instrument and unfairly maligned as an orchestral instrument (see below), leading to some calling it the ‘cinderella’ of the orchestra. In recent times, beginning with pioneers such as William Primrose and Lionel Tertis (who wrote books called ‘My Viola’ and I and ‘Cinderella No More’), the viola has risen to prominence as a solo instrument in its own right, with more and more works being composed for it.

The viola repertoire is relatively small compared with many instruments, but given that the instrument took a long time to be recognised as a solo instrument, many major works have been written for it such as the famous Walton and Bartok Viola Concertos, and works by Britten, Vaughan Williams, Hindemith, Shostakovich, Clarke, York Bowen, Penderecki and Schnittke.

Aren’t viola players just failed violinists?

Absolutely not! Contrary to popular belief, playing the viola is actually harder than playing the violin. It is a larger and heavier instrument to hold, requires a more robust bow arm as the strings are slightly thicker and require more effort to make vibrate (especially the C string), and the notes are further apart than on the violin, making it harder to stretch some notes. Overall, it is harder to make a good sound on the viola than it is on the violin because of its larger size, but the sound when it comes out is gorgeously rich and full.

The commonly held belief that viola players are ‘failed violinist’ may have come about because violinists sometimes switch to viola, especially if there are not enough viola players in a group, so if a mediocre violinist was asked to play viola then of course they would play the viola badly too. Or violinists are simply jealous of the richer sound that we as viola players make! 🙂

I find that when I switch to violin (mainly only for teaching purposes, as I am definitely a true violist at heart!) everything seems very easy and so small, like playing a toy version of my viola!

I’ve never heard of any famous viola players.

Most people if you asked them probably would not be able to name any famous viola players, but if you do your homework you’ll find that many of the most famous composers including Mozart, Bach, Haydn and Beethoven played the viola and composed music for it, if only in combination with other instruments – Mozart is said to have directed the first performance of his Sinfonia Concertante from the viola. Other composers who were viola players include Britten, Frank Bridge, Schubert, Dvorak, Rebecca Clarke and Paul Hindemith, suggesting that as a composer, the viola was a popular choice, perhaps because of its role as a harmony instrument.

Many famous violinists also play (or played) the viola, such as Nigel Kennedy, Maxim Vengerov, David Oistrakh, Yehudi Menuhin and even Paganini, so it was not nearly as neglected an instrument as most people think! The pioneers of the viola as a solo instrument included the British violists Lionel Tertis and William Primrose, and notable viola virtuosos of today include Lawrence Power, Yuri Bashmet, Nobuko Imai and Jane Atkins.

A good article about viola players is here

Why would you choose to play the viola and not the violin? Isn’t it boring not playing the tune?

There are lots of reasons to choose the viola over the violin (no offence to any violinist colleagues!):

  • The viola produces a richer, darker tone and can be more expressive than the violin
  • As mentioned before, the viola is harder to play than the violin, making it more of a technical challenge. People will often tell you that playing the viola part is ‘easy’, or easier than the first violin part, which is true to an extent as first violin parts are often stratospherically high, but there are different challenges in viola parts such as playing fast on thicker strings.
  • I personally find it very satisfying to be in the middle of the texture, both in orchestras and in chamber music, underpinning the harmony – I don’t mind not playing the tune all the time!
  • Having said that, many composers give the viola section really great bits of tune, which conductors often refer to as ‘viola moments’!

Why are there so many viola jokes?

Viola players have a hard time of it. Take the following exchange on facebook:

Q: Why would a viola player constantly go to his locker five times a day?

A: To read the instructions: instrument on the left, bow on the right

To which a viola player commented:  ‘What are you talking about? Isn’t it viola on the right?’

And 2 other comments:

‘Nonsense. Everybody knows viola players can’t read.’

‘Wrong: a viola player who would practice 5 times a day would soon become a musician and start playing the violin.’

There are hundreds, if not thousands, of viola jokes. They all draw ammunition from the assertion that violists are failed violinists (see above), so we are credited with various characteristics in the jokes: not knowing how to hold our instruments (above), playing timidly (eg How do you get a viola-player to play pp tremolo?’ – ‘Write solo in big letters over the part’), so old that we are dead (eg What’s the difference between a viola and a coffin? The coffin has the dead person on the inside) and just plain incompetent (eg How can you tell when a violist is playing out of tune? The bow is moving). All I have to say is for all of these jokes, try replacing the word ‘viola’ with another instrument – the joke will work just as well with practically any other instrument.

Viola players (for the most part) tend to be friendly, approachable and long suffering – perhaps because we have been maligned for so long!

See this article  for a good description of the viola, viola players and a mention of viola jokes.

Why do violas come in many sizes?

Unlike with violins, cellos and double basses, there is no such thing as a ‘full size viola’. Violas can range in size from just larger than a violin (which has a body length of 14 inches) to massive violas with body lengths of 17 to 18 inches. Most viola players will choose an instrument in the range of 15-16.5 inches, as these are the instruments that are comfortable to play in size and produce a good resonant tone; the smaller the instrument, the smaller the sound, especially on the C string. The size of your viola is a personal choice based on what size is comfortable for you relative to the sound of the viola. I have played violas ranging from 15 to 16 and a quarter inches, and my current one is 15 and 3/8 inches – relatively small, but it produces a nice resonant sound as it is quite generously proportioned widthways.

Does anyone start playing on the viola? Why does it seem like most viola players start on the violin?

People can and do start playing on the viola itself, but due to its larger size, most small children who start playing will start on the violin and then move to the viola when their hands and arms are big enough. Having said this, you can use a small violin strung as a viola (but this really does not sound good, especially on the C string), and there are now violin-viola conversions available, which help small violins sound more resonant like violas. These are a bit drastic, as a small hole is drilled through the front of the violin and the bridge is placed in direct contact with the soundpost, but they do sound better than a simple violin strung as a viola. I cannot emphasise enough that this should never be attempted at home or with a violin other than a cheap factory made one.

Can you play fiddle tunes on the viola?

Yes, definitely! Fiddle tunes transposed down a string work well on the viola, especially slow airs, as they suit the mellow tone of the instrument. The viola can also be used very effectively to accompany fiddlers using drones and chords.

Chamber music and sensitivity

The week before last I attended a new chamber music course in St Andrews called ‘Strings in Spring’, which was coached by the fantastic Fitzwilliam Quartet (composed of Lucy Russell, Marcus Barcham-Stevens, Alan George and Heather Tuach). It was a chance for local string players to receive expert coaching from these eminent musicians, and to hear some top class playing when it came to their own concert. My trio (a string trio, which is a quartet minus the second violin) went along and we got some great advice on playing Mozart and Beethoven, as well as the unforgettable opportunity to play the first movement of Schubert’s ‘Rosamunde’ quartet with Lucy Russell playing second violin!

We also had the chance to play in a string ensemble for some of the sessions, and covered everything from Purcell’s Fairy Queen to Elgar’s Serenade and Mendelssohn’s Octet, which was really good fun, as members of the quartet are also specialists in Baroque playing and could advise us on how to get the most authentic sounds out of our instruments, and the benefits of playing with gut strings and baroque bows.

It was when I went to hear the quartet play in their own concert, entitled ‘Latest and Last’ as they played the last quartets composed by Mozart and Haydn as well as some recently written works, that I was struck by an aspect of playing music that I had never considered before. Musicians, especially those playing chamber music, have to be minutely aware of the subtleties of the other players’ playing, so that if one player suddenly decides to take time or change the dynamic in one phrase, the others must notice this and immediately adapt to it. This sensitivity to the tiniest changes in pitch, timing, dynamics and many other factors is helped along in a quartet by the fact that its members (hopefully) know each other very well and can anticipate what each other will do. Of course rehearsal is also essential to get to know the music and where the difficult patches are, but in performances, spontaneous things can happen and mistakes can creep in into the most well rehearsed passage, and the adaptability of chamber musicians in these situations is key to the success (or failure) of the performance. I remember when I was playing in a quartet in a concert (I think it was a fairly light hearted piece Schubert), and the cellist decided mischieviously to pause for longer than we had rehearsed before playing his pizz, thus momentarily throwing me and the rest of the quartet – but since we knew the piece well, we quickly adapted. This responsiveness, coupled with musicians’ heightened awareness of moods and emotions portrayed in music, means that as chamber musicians we can read music that we don’t know and pick up some of the nuances of it straight away.

The intimacy of chamber music is a large part of the reason I like it so much – you can hear yourself and your own sound very clearly (as opposed to in an orchestra where others are playing your part and it is more difficult to hear yourself), and you can bring your own interpretations to the music, as there are a much smaller number of players in the group and you are not being directed from the podium. Chamber music allows musicians to express their personalities through the music, and to interpret the composers’ intentions directly, without the medium of the conductor. A large part of chamber music is the close relationship of the players to each other, and the fact that you use eye contact and visual cues much more to be aware of what the other players are doing – without this, it is very unlikely that a string quartet or chamber group would ever be fully together. (This is the same in orchestras and choirs, only it is the responsibility of the conductor to make sure everyone is together). You will often see quartet players looking up from their music and looking at each other for large parts of the music – they know the piece so well that they can play from memory and use the music as an aide, concentrating instead on the ensemble. This strategy is great, until you are sight reading a piece or don’t know it very well – I’ve lost count of the number of times I have looked up and then completely lost my place in the music!

I leave you with a funny quotation from an unknown musician on the nature of quartet playing:

‘A quartet is four people who used to be friends….’


I selected this post to be featured on my blog’s page at Best Music Blogs.

Music changing lives III: music therapy for profound and multiple learning disabilities

If you have a spare ten minutes and would like to see the difference music can make to some of our society’s hardest to reach individuals, then watch this incredibly moving video:

Most of us will encounter someone with severe and disabling learning difficulties at some point in our lives, and some of us are in day to day contact with them. The approach used in the film – using ‘communication passports’ to document each individual’s unique modes of communication – is an ingenious idea for those who work with people with severe disabilities and one which I feel should become more widely known and used.

An organisation that works with disabled people to make music is Drake Music Scotland, which I visited a few months ago to see what they do and how they overcome the difficulties of making music when someone has disabilities like limited motor control. They have a number of very cool adaptive technologies, including a squidgy cube called the Skoog that responds to touch, a beam of light that produces sounds when it is broken (called Soundbeam) and a space age headband that reads your brainwaves to produce music (which I didn’t see in action).

In the comments on the video, someone suggests this approach should be used for the treatment of older people as well. I agree, and think that the arts have an enormous role to play in the care and enjoyment of the vunerable in our society. At the moment, I am working on a concept which involves providing support and befriending as well as a creative activity, such as music or art, for older and isolated people in the community. This is still in the very early planning stages, so I’ll post more about it as the project progresses.

Music Changing Lives II: Gareth Malone’s Military Wives

‘Before, we were just military wives, stuck at home with the kids. People are actually hearing us now and we’ve got a voice’ (Choir member)

Last November, a 3-part TV documentary called about a choir formed from the wives and girlfriends of the armed forces was aired, presented by choirmaster and musician Gareth Malone. The series culminated with the choir’s televised performance at the Royal Albert Hall in the Remembrance Day celebration, and the choir became something of a phenomenon when their spin off single ‘Wherever you Are’ out sold the X factor’s offering to become Christmas Number One.

Malone, who is about as enthusiastic and inspiring as they come and has also presented other series’ of The Choir in different contexts, recruits a wide range of women who are left behind when their husbands are called up and we journey with the choir from its tentative formation to the moment when it comes to national prominence via its televised performance in front of the Royal family. The resulting Military Wives Choir was formed initially from women at Chivenor Royal Marines base in Devon, all of whom had husbands on active service in Afghanistan. Later, Gareth decides to expand the choir and adds in women from Royal Citadel, Plymouth, causing initial resentment at their abilities but eventually a sense of pulling together and communal solidarity prevails. We see the choir perform first in front of the rear guard (members of the military who are not on active service), in Barnstaple, and at Armed Forces Day in Plymouth and at Sandhurst for the passing out parade-an event which Gareth admits is ‘the scariest gig of my life!’

The series sensitively explores what life is for the women left behind while their husbands are away and the vulnerability and isolation they feel, especially those looking after young children. The idea of the choir was to add a bit of fun to their existence as they wait for their husbands to come home: to bring them together and provide them with a collective ‘voice’. The emotion of the women as they sing is palpable, especially when Gareth arranges for them to broadcast one of their sessions over the radio to the troops abroad.

One woman explains what it is like having a partner away:

‘When your husband’s away, it’s like your life almost is put on pause…You don’t want to do things because you feel guilty that you’re having fun with your children….You just count your days down and wait till you get to the end…’

One young woman in particular, Sam, is particularly affected by joining the choir. She had originally wanted to study music at university and had sung in a choir at school, but gave up her dream to marry her partner and now has small children. Gareth identifies her as having a big talent but zero confidence to use it; at first, she refuses to sing in public and even when he asks her to sing in front of him in her home she is reluctant. As the series progresses however, Gareth puts more and more responsibility on her and by the end, she is confident enough to sing the solo in the Albert Hall beautifully and movingly in front of millions. After singing a solo at Sandhurst, Sam enthuses, “I feel so good now, I want to go back and do it again! It was amazing, I feel so much more confident now, and now I can just take on anything!” Gareth comments, “She needs to sing, this woman. And it’s really good to have helped her.”

After the performance at the Royal Albert Hall Gareth, summarises his feelings about the choir: “These are women who, because of their natural tendency to get on with it stoically, just hide their light under a bushel and that’s a terrible shame – they have so much to be proud of, so much to celebrate and I don’t think there has ever been a forum to celebrate military wives before and we’ve just made one, and it felt really really fantastic and an honour to be part of that. And music did that, not me, not them, music did it for them.”

See the Military Wives singing in the Royal Albert hall on youtube here

The BBC series summary is below:

‘Choirmaster Gareth Malone believes singing can help people through the most difficult times of their lives. Armed with his keyboard, Gareth has been invited to RMB Chivenor military base in north Devon, where the troops are about to deploy for a six-month tour of duty in Afghanistan.

While the troops are away, Gareth hopes to start a choir with the wives and girlfriends left behind to help them through the worrying time.

Gareth soon discovers that living on an isolated estate on the edge of the military base has left the wives longing to have a voice to express the difficulty of their lives. But can he inspire his fledgling choir to have the confidence to sing in public?’

Music Changing Lives I: ‘Inspiring Change’

Recently, I’ve been thinking about the different ways music can be used in the community, and I’ve decided to write a series of posts about a few that have made the news in recent years and their social impact.

I’d like to start with a lesser known but hard hitting project, called ‘Inspiring Change’ which took place in 2010. Its rather bland name gives no hint of what the project was actually about – it was a pioneering collaboration between Motherwell College, a dozen arts organisations and the Scottish Prison Service to provide arts outreach to those inside Her Majesty’s prisons. The arts organisations involved were Scottish Opera, the Scottish Chamber Orchestra, the National Galleries of Scotland, the Scottish Ensemble, the National Youth Choir of Scotland, the Citizens Theatre and the Traverse Theatre, and funding was provided by the Scottish Government and the Scottish Arts Council. The project included rigorous evaluation so that the benefits that it brought could be recognised and applied to future projects of this sort.

Scottish Opera and the SCO collaborated on a project working in HMP Shotts, where the offenders were involved in creating an opera from scratch, including writing the libretto, music, designing costumes and sets, then staging a performance of their work. Reading violinist Rosenna East’s account of the project in the Herald, I’m struck by the enthusiasm and eagerness of the prisoners to participate in the project, especially to sing, when we are constantly told by the media that classical music, and especially opera, is for the elite and is definitely ‘not cool’. Rosenna writes, ‘Only one man says to me that he will get “slagged” if he has anything to do with the project’, and that this man eventually ended up in one of the music writing groups. How many of us would expect this reaction if an orchestra and opera company were to walk into a prison or young offenders institute? I find it surprising and wonderful that the stereotypes don’t fit.

The project at Her Majesty’s Young Offenders Institute Polmont was divided into three separate projects: the Scottish Ensemble’s Music for Change, which focussed on learning tp play and record music, National Youth Choir of Scotland’s VoiceMale, which was a series of vocal workshops culminating in a performance, and an art project by the National Galleries of Scotland in which individuals constructed life size human figures. A research paper (which can be found here) summarised the outcomes of these projects, and contained the following reactions from some of the young offenders:

‘I’ve never really had a chance to do anything like that. Never really had a chance to put on a show for anybody’

‘At the end of the performance I actually got compliments. They said it was good and I should carry on when I get out. It was surprising and it was good to hear, you know what I mean?’

‘I was just more eager to do it. It was something you wanted to do… Other things you wouldn’t want to put the time and effort into. I actually tried. I tried and made an effort for it.’

‘They [the arts practitioners] told you what to do but they never pushed you or forced you. They helped you. They weren’t too bossy. And the way that they did it, it worked out good, you know what I mean? You learned from them.’

 ‘Music gives you extra skills…it can open your eyes and you say [to yourself] I didn’t know I could do that before I came here and it turns out I can and I’m quite good at it’.

Overall the report emphasises the improved engagement of the young men: the sense of meaning and purpose the projects gave them, and the improvements in confidence and self esteem that being involved with others focussed on a common goal brought about. As the report stated, ‘engagement in the arts projects seemed to challenge the passivity of prison life.’

More information about Inspiring Change can be found on the SCO Connect’s page about the project here